Great Indian Freedom Fighters Essay
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920)
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was born on 23rd July 1856 at Ratnagiri in Maharashtra. Being a learned man, he did much for the cause of education. He studied law but became a teacher in mathematics at Poona English school. To educate the masses established the Deccan Education Society in 1880. He became a full-time journalist in 1890.
Tilak was keen to spread the feeling of Patriotism among the Indians. For this purpose, he bought two weekly newspapers Kesari in Marathi and the Maratha in English. The publications aroused the sentiments of the people against the British rule. He revived patriotic spirit among Indians. The British Government arrested him and sent him to jail in 1897.
Tilak appealed to the people to boycott foreign goods. This lead to the nationwide Swadeshi Movement.
Tilak became an active member in extreme wing of Indian National Congress. He demanded complete Independence for India. He raised the slogan “Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it”. He was again arrested in 1908 and imprisoned. The people of India honoured him by giving him the title Lokmanya.
Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948)
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat. After completing his matriculation in India, he went to England to study law. He came back after the study of law and had two years’ practice at Mumbai and Rajkot. In 1893, Mohandas went to South Africa and studied there for more than 20 years. Those Days, the Indians in South Africa where illustrated by the British rules. He started Satyagraha to get equal rights for the Indians and Negroes. He became a great leader of operation in South Africa.
In 1914, Gandhiji returned to India and began to work for Indian Independence. He joined the Indian National Congress and became its leader. The Indian National Congress was the party of people of India. Gandhiji introduced the weapon of non-violent non-cooperation against the British. He started the Civil Disobedience movement in 1922. He violated the salt law at Dandi in 1930. Gandhiji was arrested and jailed.
In 1942, Gandhiji organized the ‘Quit India’ movement. He called upon the people to boycott foreign goods. Gandhiji believed in getting freedom by non-violent methods. Gandhiji was imprisoned several times during the struggle for freedom. He is called the “Father of Nation” because of his inspiring leadership that paved the way for India’s freedom.
Gandhiji worked sincerely for Hindu Muslim Unity. He was concerned about the poor. He was firmly against untouchability. Because of all these qualities, he is called ‘Mahatma’ which means ‘great soul’.
Gandhiji was shot dead by a religious frantic by name Nathuram Godse on 30 January 1948 at his prayer meeting. January 30 is observed as ‘Martyr’s Day’ in India.
Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
Jawaharlal Nehru was born in Allahabad on 14th November 1889. At the age of 15, Nehru went to England and studied at Harrow School and the University of Cambridge. In 1912, Nehru came back to India and became a lawyer at Allahabad. Inspired by Gandhiji’s freedom movement, Nehru joined the Indian National Congress in 1919. He became the President of the party in 1929.
Nehru was jailed nine times between 1921 and 1945 for participating in the movement against the British. Nehru called ‘pandit’ with name ‘wise men’. He loved children, and they lovingly called him ‘Chacha Nehru’.
Nehru was a good writer. He wrote many books among which ‘The discovery of India’ is very famous.
Nehru became the first prime minister of India after Independence. He continued the Prime Minister from 1947 to 1964. Pandit Nehru died in New Delhi on 27 may 1964.
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945)
Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23rd January 1897 at Cuttack in Orissa. He was one of the greatest revolutionaries of Pre-independent India. He studied in England and graduated in 1919. Then he passed the Indian Civil Service (ICS) examination.
Subhas Chandra Bose returns to India on 16th July 1921. He immediately joined Gandhiji’s freedom movement. He was jailed several times. He was elected President of Indian National Congress in 1938. But he was not impressed by the non-violent methods of Gandhiji. So he resigned as a party president in 1939.
During the Second World War, Bose was jailed in 1940. He escaped from the jail and fled to Germany. From Germany, he went to Malaya. With the help of Japan, he organized an army of 40,000 Indian soldiers and named it Azad Hind Fauz (Indian National Army). The troops reached India on 18th March 1944. However, they lost the battle with the British. Netaji is believed to have died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (1875-1950)
Vallabhbhai Patel was born on 31st October 1875 Gujarat. He studied law and become a lawyer. He was so impressed with Gandhiji’s national movement that he decided to follow by Gandhiji. He joined the civil disobedience movement in 1930 and the Quit India Movement 1942. Patel was elected President of Indian National Congress in 1931. He was sometimes jailed by the British. He led the struggle against increasing taxes and Bardoli. This struggle earned him the title ‘Sardar’. Patel was successful in bringing the 600 princely states of India into the Indian Union. He served as the Home Minister, Minister of state and Deputy prime minister in Jawaharlal Nehru’s ministry. Patel is known as the ‘Ironman of India’.
Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941)
Rabindranath Tagore was born on seven may 1861 at Jorasanko in Kolkata. He was a great poet, novelist, patriot and philosopher. He started writing when he was very young. It was Tagore who composed our National Anthem. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his famous work Gitanjali.
He was an ardent patriot. This bought him into contact with Mahatma Gandhi who called him Gurudev. It was Tagore who called Gandhiji ‘Mahatma’.
Tagore founded the famous Vishwa Bharati University at Shantiniketan in West Bengal. It teaches cultural activities like dance, music and painting.
V.O. Chidambaram (1872-1936)
Chidambaram was born on 6 September 1872 at Ottaipidaram in Tirunelveli districts of Tamilnadu. V.O. Chidambaram Pillai, commonly known as VOC, was an essential leader from South India who took part in the freedom struggle. He studied to become a lawyer. He was attached to Swadeshi Movement in Bengal. He set an example by turning on his different clothes. People wear impressed and began to follow his example.
On 16 October 1986 and registered Swadeshi Steam Navigation company. Indian merchants and passengers boycotted British ships and sailed by Swadeshi boats alone.
To prevent Indian ships from carrying goods, the British played many tricks. Chidambaram’s shipping company ran into losses and was finally closed.
Laksmana Tilak, leader of the Militant Nationalists, appointed VOC as his representative in the south. Chidambaram was arrested and jailed. He died on 18 November 1936.